In collaboration with Payame Noor University and Iran Educational Psychology Association

Document Type : Research


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Applied Psychology, Shahid Beheshti, Tehran, Iran

2 Bachelor of Psychology, Shahid Behesti University, Tehran, Iran

3 Ph.D., Lecturer, Department of Psychology, Payame Noor University


The main purpose of the present study was to investigate psychometric properties of the Farsi version of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ, Endler & Parker, 2007) among male and female teachers. In this correlational study, 381 teachers completed the (PCQ) and Teacher Emotion Inventory (TEI, Chen, 2016). The confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group methods were used to compute the PCQ's factorial validity and its gender invariance, respectively. The results of confirmatory factor analysis based on AMOS software showed that the four factor model of PCQ (self-efficacy, resiliency, optimism and hope) fit well to the data across two groups. The results of multi-group confirmatory factor analysis revealed the cross-group invariance of factorial structure, factor loadings, and factor variances and covariances of the PCQ across teachers. Internal consistency coefficients for the four subscales were 0/87, 0/83, 0/86 & 0/70 respectively. In sum, these findings approved the validity and reliability of the PCQ to measure the psychological capital as a broad, compound and higher-order construct and has a buffering function against stressors in male and female teachers.


خدایی، ع (1397). نسخة فارسی سیاهه هیجان معلم: یک مطالعة روان‌سنجی. فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی پژوهش در یادگیری آموزشگاهی و مجازی، سال پنجم، شماره چهارم (پیاپی 20)، (ص 25-38).
رستگار، ا (1398) ارائة مدلی علّی روابط حمایت تحصیلی و رفتار مدنی تحصیلی با تاکید بر واسطه‌گری سرمایه‌های روان‌شناختی در میان دانشجویان دوره‌های مجازی دانشگاه شیراز. فصلنامه علمی پژوهشی پژوهش در یادگیری آموزشگاهی و مجازی، سال هفتم، شمارة سوم (پیاپی 27)، (ص 67-84).
صرامی، غ. ر.، آخوندی، ن.، علیپور، ا.، و اعراب شیبانی، خ (1393). اعتباریابی و بررسی ساختار عاملی پرسش‌نامة سرمایة روانی در کارشناسان شرکت ایران خودرو دیزل. فصلنامه مطالعات روان‌شناختی، دورة دهم، شمارة سوم (پیاپی 43)، (ص 95-109).
قدیمی نوران، م.، و یونسی، ج (1395). ساخت و رواسازی مقیاس سرمایة روان‌شناختی و رابطة آن با بهزیستی ذهنی. فصلنامة اندازه‌گیری تربیتی، دورة هفتم، شمارة سه (پیاپی 25)، (ص 159-186).
Alessandri, G., Borgogni, L., Consiglio, C., & Mitidieri, G. (2015). Psycho-metric properties of the Italian version of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire. International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 23, 149-159.
Antunes, A. C., Caetano, A., & Pina e Cunha, M. (2017). Reliability and construct validity of the Portuguese version of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire. Psychological Reports, 120, 520-536.
Avey, J. (2014). The left side of psychological capital: New evidence on the antecedents of PsyCap. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21, 141-149.
Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., & Luthans, F. (2011). Experimentally analyzing the impact of leader positivity on follower positivity and performance. Leadership Quarterly, 22, 282-294.
Avey, J.B., Luthans, F., & Jensen, S.M. (2009). Psychological capital: A positive resource for combating employee stress and turnover. Human Resource Management, 48(5), 677–693.
Avey, J.B., Luthans, F., Smith, R.M., & Palmer, N.F. (2010). Impact of positive psychological capital on employee well-being over time. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(1), 17–28.
Avey, J.B., Luthans, F., & Youssef, C.M. (2010). The additive value of positive psychological capital in predicting work attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Management, 36(2), 430–452.
Avey, J. B., Reichard, R. J., Luthans, F., & Mhatre, K. H. (2011). Meta-Analysis of the impact of positive psychological capital on employee at-titudes, behaviors, and performance. Human Resource Development Quar-terly, 22, 127-152.
Avey, J., Wernsing, T.S., & Mhatre, K.H. (2011). A longitudinal analysis of positive psychological constructs and emotions on stress, anxiety, and well-being. Journal of  Leadership & Organizational Studies, 18(2), 216–228.
Azanza, G., Domínguez, Á. J., Moriano, J. A., & Molero, F. J. (2014). Capital psicológico positivo: Validación del cuestionario PCQ en España. Ana-les de Psicología, 30, 294-301.
Baum, N., Stokar, Y., Frolich, R., Ziv, Y., Abu-Jufar, I., Cardozob, B., Pat-Horenczyk, R., & Brom, D. (2018). Building Resilience Intervention (BRI) with teachers in Bedouin communities: From evidence informed to evidence based. Children and Youth Services Review Journal, 87, 186-191.
Byrne, B. M. (2006). Structural equation modeling with EQS: basic concepts, applications and programming. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ.
Byrne, B. M., & Watkins, D. (2003). The issue of measurement invariance revisited. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 34, 155-175.
Chen, J. (2016). Understanding teacher emotions: The development of a teacher emotion inventory. Teaching and Teacher Education, 55, 68-77.
Chesak, S., Khalsa, T., Bhagra, A., Jenkins, S., Bauer, B., & Sood, A. (2019). Stress management and resiliency training for public school teachers and staff: A novel intervention to enhance resilience and positively impact student interactions. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 37, 32-38.
Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233-255.
Formiga, N., Viseu, J., & Jesus, S. N. (2014). Empirical verification of a measure of positive psychological capital in Brazilian workers. Eureka, 11, 284-300.
Demirtas-Zorbaz, S., & Ergene, T. (2019). School adjustment of first-grade primary school students: Effects of family involvement, externalizing behavior, teacher and peer relations. Children and Youth Services Review Journal, 101, 307-316.
Görgens-Ekermans, G., & Herbert, M. (2013). Psychological capital: Internal and external validity of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ-24) on a South African sample. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 39(2), 1131, 1-12.
Guichun, J., & Wang, Y. (2019). The influence of gratitude on learning engagement among adolescents: The multiple mediating effects of teachers' emotional support and students’ basic psychological needs. Journal of Adolescence, 77, 21-31.
Lambert, R., Boyle, L., Fitchett, P., & McCarthy, C. (2019). Risk for occupational stress among U.S. kindergarten teachers. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 61, 13-20.
Léon-Pérez. J. M., Antino, M., & Léon-Rubio, J. M. (2017). Adaptation of the short version of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ-12) into Spanish. Revista de Psicología Social, 32, 196-213.
Lorenz, T., Beer, C., Pütz, J., & Heinitz, K. (2016). Measuring psychological capital: Construction and validation of the compound PsyCap Scale. PloS one, 11(4). 1-12.
Daria, L., & Virga, D. (2018). Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ): Analysis of the Romanian Adaptation and Validation.  Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 16, 27–39.
Kamei, H., Ferreira, M. C., Valentini, F., Peres, M. F. P. Kamei, P. T., & Damásio, B. F. (2018). Psychological Capital Questionnaire – Short Version (PCQ-12): evidence of Validity of The Brazilian Version. Psico-USF, Bragança Paulista, 23 (2), 203-214.
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling (2ndedition). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Lee, J. C. K., & Yin, H. B. (2011). Teachers' emotions and professional identity in curriculum reform: A Chinese perspective. Journal of Educational Change, 12(1), 25-46.
Luthans, F., Avey, J., Clapp-Smith, R., & Li, W. (2008). More evidence on the value of Chinese workers’ psychological capital: A potentially unli-mited competitive resource? The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19, 818-827.
Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541-572.
Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., & Avey, J. B. (2014). Psychological capital questionnai-re: Manual development, applications, & research. Menlo Park, CA: Mind Garden Inc.
Luthans, F., & Youssef, C. M. (2007). Emerging positive organizational behavior. Journal of Management, 33, 321-349.
Luthans, F., Youssef, C., & Avolio, B. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Luthans, F., Youssef-Morgan, C., & Avolio, B. J. (2015). Psychological capital and beyond. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Mansfield, C. F., Beltman, S., Broadley, T., & Weatherby-Fell, N. (2016). Building resilience in teacher education: An evidenced informed framework. Teaching and Teacher Education, 54, 77-87.
Marsella, A. J. & Leong, F. T. L. (1995). Cross-cultural issues in personality and career assessment. Journal of Career Assessment, 3,202–218.
Meade, A. W., & Lautenschlager, G. J. (2004). A comparison of items response theory and confirmatory factor analytic methodologies for establishing measurement equivalence/invariance. Organizational Research Methods, 7, 361-388.
Mérida-López, S., & Extremera, N. (2020). When pre-service teachers’ lack of occupational commitment is not enough to explain intention to quit: Emotional intelligence matters. Revista de Psicodidáctica (English ed.), 25 (1), 52-58.
Meseguer-de Pedro, M., Soler-Sánchez, M. I., Fernández-Valera, M. M., & García-Izquierdo, M. (2017). Evaluation of psychological capital in Spanish workers: design and empirical structure of the OREA questionnaire. Anales de Psicología, 33, 713-721.
Meyers, L. S., Gamest. G., & Goarin, A. J. (2013). Applied multivariate research, design and interpretation. Thousand oaks. London. New Deihi, Sage publication.
Mónico, L. M., Pais, L., dos Santos, N. R., & Santos, D. (2014). Psychological capital in Portuguese workers: Contributions to the validity and reliability of the Psycap Questionnaire. Proceedings of the SGEM Conferences on Social Sciences and Arts, 1, 319-326.
Raju, N. S., Lafitte, L. J., & Byrne, B. M. (2002). Measurement equivalence: A comparison of methods based on confirmatory factor analysis and item response theory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 517-529.
Rigotti, T., Schyns, B., & Mohr, G. (2008). A short version of the occupational self-efficacy scale: structural and construct validity across five countries. Journal of Career Assessment, 16 (2), 238–255.
Rus, C., Baban, A., Jesus, S. N., & Andrei, D. (2012). An analysis of the psychometric properties of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire-12. Journal of Educational Sciences & Psychology, 2, 110-122.
Santana-Cárdenas, S., Viseu, J., Núñez, M. I. L., & Jesús, S. N. D. (2018). Validity and reliability evidence of the Psychological Capital Questionnaire-12 in a sample of Mexican workers. Annals of psychology, 34 (3), 562-570.
Trigweel, K. (2012). Relations between teachers' emotions in teaching and their approaches to teaching in higher education. Instructional Science, 40, 607-621.
Schutz, P. A., & Zembylas, M. (2009). Advances in teacher emotion research: The impact on teachers' lives. Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer.
Virga, D., & Lupsa, D. (2018). Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ): Analysis of the Romanian adaptation and validation. Psihologia Resurselor Umane, 16, 27-39.
Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: the PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 1063–1070.
Wernsing, T. (2014). Psychological capital: A test of measurement variance across 12 national cultures. Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies, 21, 179–190.
Weston, R., & Gore, Jr. P. A. (2006). A brief guide to structural equation modeling. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 5, 719-751.
Youssef-Morgan, C., & Luthans, F. (2015). Psychological capital and well-being. Stress and Health, 31, 180-188.