تنظیم هیجان در کودکان با اختلال یادگیری و کودکان عادی

نوع مقاله: پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری، روان‌شناسی کودکان استثنایی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

2 دانشیار، روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

3 استاد، روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه علامه طباطبایی

4 استاد، روان‌شناسی، دانشگاه تهران

5 استادیار، علوم شناختی، پژوهشکده علوم شناختی

6 استادیار، روان‌سنجی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی

چکیده

مطالعة حاضر به مقایسة تنظیم هیجان در کودکان با اختلال یادگیری و عادی نه تا یازده سال پرداخت. مطالعة حاضر دارای طرح توصیفی- پس‌رویدادی است. نمونة پژوهش شامل سی کودک با اختلال یادگیری و سی کودک عادی است که به‌طور دسترس از شهر تهران انتخاب شدند. دو ابزار از جمله پرسش‌نامة تنظیم هیجان و سیاهة تنظیم هیجان اجرا شد. پرسش‌نامة تنظیم هیجان به وسیلة کودکان و سیاهة تنظیم هیجان از سوی والدین آنان تکمیل شد. تحلیل داده‌ها با استفاده از روش آماری تحلیل واریانس چندمتغیری حاصل از هر دو ابزار پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که در مقایسه با کودکان عادی، کودکان اختلال یادگیری بی‌ثباتی هیجانی/منفی‌گرایی بیشتر و نمره‌های پایین‌تری را در استفاده از راهبرد تنظیم هیجان ارزیابی مجدد به‌طور معناداری نشان دادند. همچنین، یافته‌های به دست آمده از اثرهای تعاملی و اثرهای اصلی متغیرهای جمعیت‌شناختی مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. بر اساس یافته‌های به دست آمده، با توجه به نمره‌های بالای کودکان با اختلال یادگیری در بی‌ثباتی/منفی‌گرایی هیجانی، پیشنهاد می‌شود که مشکلات هیجانی در این گروه از کودکان از سوی متخصصان و معلمان مورد ملاحظة بیشتری قرار گیرد و برنامه‌هایی به‌منظور بهبود مسائل این کودکان طراحی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Emotion Regulation in Children with Learning Disorders and Normal Children

نویسندگان [English]

  • Maryam Mahmoudi 1
  • Ahmad Borjali 2
  • Hamid Alizadeh 3
  • Bagher Ghobari-Bonab 4
  • Hamed Ekhtiari 5
  • Saeed Akbari-Zardkhaneh 6
چکیده [English]

This study compared emotion regulation in children with learning disorders and normal in ages 9 to 11. The design of this study was descriptive-post facto one. The sample consists of 30 children with learning disorders and 30 normal children which were selected in available from Tehran city. The two instruments, Emotion Regulation Checklist (ERC) and Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) were performed. ERQ was filled out by children. ERC was filled out by their parents. Data analysis showed that comparing normal children and LD children showed higher liability/negativity and lower score in using of emotion regulation of reappraisal. The findings of main and interaction effects of demographics were also examined in detail at the following article. Accordingly, we suggest that emotional problems in this group should be more considered by professionals and teachers, and related programs should be designed in order to improvement of the problems of these children.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Learning Disorder
  • emotion regulation
  • Reappraisal
  • Suppression

رضایی، سعید؛ افروز، غلامعلی؛ حسن‌زاده، سعید؛ حجازی، الهه و خرازی، سیدکمال (1393). "طراحی برنامة آموزش شناخت اجتماعی (SCT)، و بررسی اثربخشی آن بر توانایی و مهارت‌های تشخیص، درک و ابراز حالات هیجانی کودکان مبتلا به اختلال اتیسم با عملکرد بالا (HFA)". فصلنامه پژوهش در یادگیری آموزشگاهی و مجازی، سال اول، 4، 77-84.

علیزاده، حمید (1383). آلفرد آدلر گستره نظریة شخصیت و روان‌درمانی. تهران: نشر دانژه.

 

 

Al-Yagon, M. (2015). Fathers and Mothers of Children with Learning Disabilities: Links between Emotional and Coping Resources. Learning Disability Quarterly, 38(2) 112 –128.

American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition. Arlington, VA, American Psychiatric Association.

Arthur, A.R. (2003). The emotional lives of people with learning disability. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 25-31.

Bauminger, N. & Kimhi-Kind, I. (2008). Social information processing, security of attachment, and emotion regulation in children with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 41(4), 315–332.

Berkman, E.T. & Lieberman, M.D. (2009). Using neuroscience to broaden emotion regulation: Theoretical and methodological considerations. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(4), 475–493.

Blair, C. & Diamond, A. (2008). Biological processes in prevention and intervention: The promotion of self-regulation as a means of preventing school failure. Development and Psychopathology, 20, 899 – 911.

Brown, JR. & Dunn, J. (1992). Talk with your mother or your sibling? Developmental changes in early family conversations about feelings. Child Dev. 63:336-49.

Brunori, L. (1993). Influenze dell’ordine di genitura sullo sviluppo personale [Influences of birth order on personal development]. Eta` Evolutiva, 45, 120–126.

Bryan, T.; Burstein, K. & Ergul, C. (2004). The social-emotional side of learning disabilities: A science-based presentation of the state of the art. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27, 45-51.

Calkins, S.D. & Hill, A. (2007). Caregiver influences in emerging emotion regulation. In J. J. Gross (Ed.),Handbook of emotion regulation(pp. 229–248). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Calkins, S.D.; Gill, K.L.; Johnson, M.D. & Smith, C.L. (1999). Emotional reactivity and emotional regulation strategies as predictors of social behavior with peers during toddlerhood. Social Development, 8, 311–334.

Cappadocia, MC,; Desrocher, M.; Pepler, D. & Schroeder, JH. (2009). Contextualizing the neurobiology of conduct disorder in an emotion dysregulation framework. Clin Psychol Rev 29:506–518

Carlson, C. (1993). The family-school link: Methodological issues in studies of family processes related to children’s school competence. School Psychology Quarterly, 8, 264–276.

Chaplin, T.M. & Aldao, A. (2013). Gender differences in emotion expression in children: A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 139, 735-765. doi: 10.1037/a0030737

Cole, P.M.; Michel, M.K. & Teti, L.O.D. (1994). The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation: A clinical perspective. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59,73–100, 250–283.

Cole, P.M.; T.A. Dennis, K.E.; Smith-Simon, & L.H. Cohen. (2009). Preschoolers’ emotion regulation strategy understanding: Relations with emotion socialization and child self-regulation. Social Development. 18 (2), 324-352.

Dennis, T.A. & Hajcak, G. (2009). The late positive potential: a neurophysiological marker for emotion regulation in children. J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 50(11), 1373–1383.

Drabant, E.; McRae, K.; Manuck, S.; Hariri, A. & Gross, J. (2009). Individual differences in typical reappraisal use predict amygdala and prefrontal responses. Biological Psychiatry, 65(5), 367–373.

Dunn, J.F. & McGuire, S. (1992). Sibling and peer relationships in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 67-105.

Eisenberg, N.; Spinrad, TL. & Eggum, ND. (2010). Emotion-related self-regulation and its relation to children’s maladjustment. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 6:495

Eisenberg, N.; Fabes, R.A.; Shepard, S.A.; Murphy, B.C.; Guthrie, I.K. & Jones, S., et al. (1997). Contemporaneous and longitudinal prediction of children’s social functioning from regulation and emotionality. Child Development, 68, 642-664.

Elias, M. (2004). The connection between social-emotional learning and learning disabilities: Implications for intervention. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27, 1, 53-63.

Firth, N.; Greaves, D. & Frydenberg, E. (2010). Coping Styles and Strategies: A Comparison of Adolescent Students With and Without Learning Disabilities, Journal of Learning Disabilities, 43(1) 77 –85.

Floyd FJ.; Purcell, SE.; Richardson, SS. & Kupersmidt, JB. (2009). Sibling relationship quality and social functioning of children and adolescents with intellectual disability. American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities.; 114(2): 110–127.

Greenham, S. (1999). Learning disabilities and psychosocial adjustment: A critical review. Child Neuropsychology, 5, 171–196.

Gresham, F.M. & McMillan, D.L. (1997). Social competence and affective characteristics of students with mild disabilities. Review of Educational Research, 57,377-415.

Gross, J.J. (1998). Antecedent- and response-focused emotion regulation: Divergent consequences for experience, expression, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 224 –237.

Gross, J.J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 214 –219.

Gross, J.J. & Thompson, R.A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J.J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation(pp. 3–24). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Gross, J.J. & John, O.P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362.

Gullone, E. & Taffe, J. (2012). The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (ERQ–CA): A Psychometric Evaluation. Psychological Assessment, 24, 2, 409 – 417.

Gullone, E.; Hughes, E.K.; King, N.J. & Tonge, B. (2010). The normative development of emotion regulation strategy use in children and adolescents: a 2-year follow-up study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51: 567–574.

Hanish, L.D.; Eisenberg, N.; Fabes, R.A.; Spinrad, T.L.; Ryan, P. & Schmidt, S. (2004). The expression and regulation of negative emotions: Risk factors for young children’s peer victimization. Development and Psycho-pathology, 16, 335–353

Hellendoorn, J. & Ruijssenaars, W. (2000). Personal experiences and adjustment of Dutch adults with dyslexia. Remedial and Special Education, 21, 227–239.

Kalisch, R. (2009). The functional neuroanatomy of reappraisal: Time matters. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33: 1215–1226.

Kim SH. & Hamann S. (2012). The effect of cognitiv e reappra isal on physiological reactivity and emotional memory. Int J P sychophysiol, 83: 348 –35 6.

Kim-Spoon, J.; Cicchetti, D. & Rogosch, F.A. (2013). A longitudinal study of emotion regulation, emotion lability – negativity, and internalizing symptomatology in maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Child Development, 84, 512 – 527.

Lazarus, R.S. & Alfert, E. (1964). Short-circuiting of threat by experimentally altering cognitive appraisal. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 69, 195–205.

Lipsett, A.B. (2011). Supporting emotional regulation in elementary school: Brain-based strategies and classroom interventions to promote self-regulation. Quebec, CA: LEARN.

Maag, JW. & Reid, R. (2006). Depression among students with learning disabilities: Assessing the risk. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 39(1), 3-10.

MacDermott, S.T.; Betts, J.; Gullone, E. & Allen, J.S. (2009). Emotion regulation in childhood and adoles-cence: A revised version of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ-CA). Manuscript submitted for publication.

Margalit, M. & Al-Yagon, M. (2002). The loneliness experience of children with learning disabilities. In B. Y. L. Wong & M. L. Donahue (Eds.), The social dimensions of LD (pp. 53–76). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

McRae K.; Jacobs, SE.; Ray, RD.; John, O.P. & Gross, JJ. (2012). Individual differences in reappraisal ability: Link s to reappraisal frequency, well-being, and cognitive control. J Res Pers, 46: 2–7.

McRae, K.; Hughes, B.; Chopra, S.; Gabrieli, J.D.; Gross, J.J. & Ochsner, K.N. (2010). The neural bases of distraction and reappraisal. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 22(2), 248–261. doi: 10.1162/ jocn.2009. 21243.

Menesini, E.; Camodeca, M. & Nocentini, A. (2010). Bullying among siblings: The role of personality and relational variables. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 921–939.

Meyers, L.S.; Gamst, G. & Guarino, A.J. (2006). Applied multivariate research: Design and interpretation. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.

Molina, P.; Nives Sala, M.; Zappulla, C.; Bonfigliuoli, C.; Cavioni, V.; Assunta Zanetti, M.; Baiocco, R.; Laghi, R.; Pallini, S.; De Stasio, S.; Raccanello, D. & Cicchetti, D. (2014). The Emotion Regulation Checklist – Italian translation. Validation of parent and teacher versions, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 11:5, 624-634.

Nevo, E. & Breznitz, Z. (2011). Assessment of working memory components at 6 years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 109, 73-90.

Nilsen, TS.; Eisemann, M.; Kvernmo, S. (2013). Predictors and moderators of outcome in child and adolescent anxiety and depression: a systematic review of psychological treatment studies. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 22:69–87.

Olivia, A.H. & LaGreca, A.M. (1988). Children with LD: Social goals and strategies. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 301–306.

Pons, F.; Rosnay, M., Bender, P.K.; Doudin, P. A.; Harris, P.L. & Gimenez-Dasi, M. (2014). The Impact of Abuse and Learning Diffi culties on Emotion Understanding in Late Childhood and Early Adolescence. The Journal Of Genetic Psychology, 175(4), 301–317.

Reiter, A.; Tucha, O. & Lange, K.W. (2005). Executive functions in children with dyslexia. DYSLEXIA, 11: 116–131.

Schmeichel, B.J.; Vohs, K.D. & Baumeister, R.F. (2003). Intellectual performance and ego depletion: Role of the self in logical reasoning and other information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 33-46.

Shields, A. & Cicchetti, D. (1997). Emotion regulation among school-age children: The development and validation of a new criterion Q-sort scale. Developmental Psychology, 33, 906 – 916.

Shields, A. & Cicchetti, D. (1998). Reactive aggression among maltreated children: The contributions of attention and emotion dysregulation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 27, 381 – 395.

Singer, E. (2005). The strategies adopted by Dutch children with dyslexia to maintain their self-esteem when teased at school. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 38(5), 411-423.

Sroufe, L.A. (1996). Emotional development: the organization of emotional life in the early years. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sulloway, F.J. (1996). Born to be rebel: Birth order, family dynamics and creative lives. New York: Pantheon Books.

Thompson, R.A. (1994). Emotion regulation: a theme in search of definition. In N. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation: biological and behavioral consideration. Monographs of the society for Research in Child Development, 59 (2-3)240, (25/52).

Tomeny, TS.; Barry, TD. & Bader, SH. (2013). Birth order rank as a moderator of the relation between behavior problems among children with an autism spectrum disorder and their siblings. Autism;18:1–7.