اثربخشی آموزش راهبردهای هدف‌گذاری در بهبود پیشرفت تحصیلی و دقت هدف‌گذاری دانش‌آموزان متوسطه اول

نوع مقاله : پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، پژوهشکده علوم شناختی و مغز، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران

2 دانشیار گروه روانشناسی و علوم تربیتی، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

3 پژهشکده علوم شناختی و مغز، دانشگاه شهید بهشتی، تهران، ایران.

چکیده

در این پژوهش اثربخشی آموزش راهبردهای هدف‌گذاری مبتنی بر نظریۀ هدف‌گذاری بر بهبود هدف‌گذاری و پیشرفت تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان مقطع متوسطه اول بررسی گردید. بدین منظور 79 دانش‌آموز پسر پایۀ هفتم با روش نمونه‌گیری تصادفی خوشه‌ای در قالب دو گروه آزمایشی و گروه گواه در پژوهش شرکت کردند. بستۀ آموزش راهبردهای هدف‌گذاری بر اساس نظریۀ هدف‌گذاری به وسیلة پژوهشگران تدوین و در هفت جلسه برای دانش‌آموزان ارائه شد و تکالیف آن به وسیلة دانش‌آموزان تکمیل گردید. جهت سنجش پیشرفت تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان از معدل نمرات پایانی امتحانات نیمسال اول به عنوان پیش‌آزمون و معدل نمرات پایانی نیمسال دوم به عنوان پس‌آزمون استفاده شد؛ نمره‌های هدف تعیین شده به وسیلة دانش‌آموز برای نیمسال اول و دوم جهت سنجش هدف‌گذاری استفاده گردید. نتایج نشان داد که پیشرفت تحصیلی گروه آزمایشی نسبت به گروه گواه به طور معناداری افزایش یافته است. درحالی‌که نمرة هدف دانش‌آموزان گروه آزمایشی تغییری نکرده بود، خطای نمرة هدف آنان به طور معناداری کاهش یافت که نشانگر بهبود و افزایش دقت هدف‌گذاری تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان است. آموزش راهبردهای هدف‌گذاری، افزون بر بهبود کیفیت هدف‌گذاری دانش‌آموزان، می‌‎تواند پیشرفت تحصیلی آنان را نیز تقویت کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effectiveness of Goal-Setting Strategies Training in Improving Academic Achievement and Goal Setting Accuracy of Middle School Students

نویسندگان [English]

  • Farzin Haqnazari 1
  • Vahid Nejati 2
  • Hamidreza Pouretemad 3
1 Ph.D. Student, Institute for Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran
2 Department of Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.
3 Institute for cognitive and brain sciences, Shahid Behseshti University, Tehran, Iran.
چکیده [English]

In this research, the effectiveness of goal-setting strategies training designed based on goal-setting theory in the grade goals and academic achievement of middle school students has been investigated. To achieve this aim, 79 seventh-grade male students were selected by random cluster sampling and assigned to experimental and control groups. The Goal-setting strategies training package was developed on the basis of goal-setting theory by researchers and presented during 7 sessions to students and the tasks were done by them. Final grades of the first and second semesters were used for evaluating academic achievement and the grade goals set by students for the first and second semesters were used for assessing grade goal setting. The findings showed that the academic achievement of the experimental group increased in comparison with the control group. Whereas the grade goals of the students of the experimental group did not change, their grade goal errors decreased significantly which indicate the improvement and increased accuracy of educational goal-setting of students. Goal-setting strategies training can enhance academic performance and the quality of goal-setting.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Academic Achievement
  • student
  • goal-setting
  • grade goal
شریعت‌پناه، شکوفه، مشهدی، علی (1394). نقش جهت‌گیری اهداف در موفقیت تحصیلی دانش‌آموزان (مورد مطالعه: دانش‌آموزان دختر مقطع متوسطه دوم). فصلنامه علمی، پژوهش در یادگیری آموزشگاهی و مجازی، (3)11، 66-59.
مهدوی راد، حجت، فرزاد، ولی اله، کوشکی، شیرین (1398). تبیین مدل عملکرد تحصیلی بر اساس انگیزش تحصیلی، اهداف پیشرفت، خودکارآمدی تحصیلی با میانجی‌گری درگیری تحصیلی در دانش‌آموزان متوسطه دوم. فصلنامه علمی، پژوهش در یادگیری آموزشگاهی و مجازی، (3)7. 23-34.
 
 
Alessandri, G., Borgogni, L., Latham, G. P., Cepale, G., Theodorou, A., & De Longis, E. (2020). Self-set goals improve academic performance through nonlinear effects on daily study performance. Learning and Individual Differences, 77, 101784.
Berrios, R., Totterdell, P., & Kellett, S. (2014). Investigating goal conflict as a source of mixed emotions. Cognition and Emotion29(4), 755-763.
Boudreaux, M. J., & Ozer, D. J. (2013). Goal conflict, goal striving, and psychological well-being. Motivation and Emotion, 37(3), 433-443.
Bowman, N. A., Jang, N., Kivlighan, D. M., Schneider, N., & Ye, X. (2020). The Impact of a Goal-Setting Intervention for Engineering Students on Academic Probation. Research in Higher Education61(1), 142-166.
Burns, E. C., Martin, A. J., & Evans, P. A. (2019). The role of teacher feedback–feedforward and personal best goal setting in students’ mathematics achievement: a goal setting theory perspective. Educational Psychology, 1-19.
Burton, L., & Lent, J. (2016). The use of vision boards as a therapeutic intervention. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 11(1), 52-65.
Camp, H. (2017). Goal Setting as Teacher Development Practice. International journal of teaching and learning in higher education, 29(1), 61-72.
Carraro, N., & Gaudreau, P. (2015). Predicting physical activity outcomes during episodes of academic goal conflict: The differential role of action planning and coping planning. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 41(9), 1291-1305.
Clements, A. J., & Kamau, C. (2018). Understanding students’ motivation towards proactive career behaviours through goal-setting theory and the job demands–resources model. Studies in Higher Education, 43(12), 2279-2293.
Duckworth, A., & Duckworth, A. (2016). Grit: The power of passion and perseverance (Vol. 234). New York, NY: Scribner.
Epton, T., Currie, S., & Armitage, C. J. (2017). Unique effects of setting goals on behavior change: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of consulting and clinical psychology, 85(12), 1182.
Fabiny, N., & Lovaš, L. (2018). Goal commitment mediates the relationship between expected positive consequences of goal attainment and effort. Studia Psychologica, 60(2), 84-93.Frayne, C. A., & Latham, G. P. (1987). Application of social learning theory to employee self-management of attendance. Journal of applied psychology, 72(3), 387.
Hill, P. L., Burrow, A. L., & Bronk, K. C. (2016). Persevering with positivity and purpose: An examination of purpose commitment and positive affect as predictors of grit. Journal of Happiness Studies, 17(1), 257-269.
Kelly, R. E., Mansell, W., & Wood, A. M. (2015). Goal conflict and well-being: A review and hierarchical model of goal conflict, ambivalence, self-discrepancy and self-concordance. Personality and Individual Differences, 85, 212-229.
Klein, H. J., Cooper, J. T., & Monahan, C. A. (2013). Goal Commitment. In E. A. Locke & G. P. Latham (Eds.), New Developments in Goal Setting and Task Performance (pp. 65–89). New York: Routledge.
Latham, G. P., & Locke, E. A. (2018). Goal setting theory: Controversies and resolutions.
Locke, E. A. (2009). It's time we brought introspection out of the closet. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4(1), 24-25.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting & task performance. Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2002). Building a practically useful theory of goal setting and task motivation: A 35-year odyssey. American psychologist, 57(9), 705.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2019). The development of goal setting theory: A half century retrospective. Motivation Science, 5(2), 93.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (2020). Building a theory by induction: The example of goal setting theory. Organizational Psychology Review, 2041386620921931.
Richardson, M., Abraham, C., & Bond, R. (2012). Psychological correlates of university students' academic performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychological bulletin, 138(2), 353.
Riediger, M., & Freund, A. M. (2004). Interference and facilitation among personal goals: Differential associations with subjective well-being and persistent goal pursuit. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(12), 1511-1523.
Schippers, M. C., Morisano, D., Locke, E. A., Scheepers, A. W., Latham, G. P., & de Jong, E. M. (2020). Writing about personal goals and plans regardless of goal type boosts academic performance. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101823.
Tang, X., Wang, M. T., Guo, J., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2019). Building grit: The longitudinal pathways between mindset, commitment, grit, and academic outcomes. Journal of youth and adolescence, 48(5), 850-863.
Tang, X., Wang, M. T., Guo, J., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2019). Building grit: The longitudinal pathways between mindset, commitment, grit, and academic outcomes. Journal of youth and adolescence, 48(5), 850-863.
van Lent, M., & Souverijn, M. (2020). Goal setting and raising the bar: A field experiment. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 101570.
van Lent, M., & Souverijn, M. (2020). Goal setting and raising the bar: A field experiment. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics, 101570.